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Challenge Stressors Versus Hindrance Stressors, and Resources to Overcome Stressors




Stress is a forceful condition in which an individual is challenged with an opportunity, demand, or resources related to what the individual yearns and for which the outcome is viewed to be both uncertain and important (5).

Beneficial Stress Versus Harmful Stress

Stress is generally discussed in a negative framework. As a matter of fact, it is not automatically bad in and of itself, and it also has a positive value (6). It is favorable when it offers promising advantages.  Contemplate, for example, the outstanding performance of an athlete or stage performer gives in an adverse situation (1) .Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at their best (1).  Similarly, many professionals view the pressure of difficult assignments and deadlines as positive challenges that improve the quality of their work and satisfaction that they get from their job (1).

Challenge Stressors Versus Hindrance Stressors

Recently, researchers have argued that challenge stressors – or stressors associated with: (1) time emergency, (2) pressure to complete work, and (3) workload ; function entirely differently from hindrance stressors- or stressors that prevent an individual from achieving his/her goals. Although research is just commencing to accrue, early evidence proposes challenge stressors produce less stress than hindrance stressors (7). There is also evidence that challenge stressors improve job performance in an accommodating work environment (7); whereas hindrance stressors decrease job performance in all work environments (10).

A meta-analysis of responses from more than 35,000 individuals demonstrated that many hindrance stressors were all constantly negatively associated with job performance (7). Examples of hindrance stressors are ((1) & (2)):


  1. Red tape
  2. Office politics
  3. Misunderstanding over job responsibilities
  4. Role ambiguity
  5. Role conflict
  6. Role overload
  7. Job insecurity
  8. Environmental uncertainty
  9. Situational constraints
  10. Extreme job demands
  11. Disagreements with teammates
  12. Disagreements with supervisors
  13. Incapable authority to carry out task
  14. Lack of training essential to perform the job
  15. Nonproductive meetings
  16. Time-consuming meetings
  17. Commuting and travelling schedules


Resources to Manage Stressors

Oftentimes, stress is associated with demands and resources. Demands are pressures, uncertainties, obligations, and responsibilities that individuals face in the workplace (1).  Resources are elements within an individual’s command that he/she can use to find solutions to the demands (1). Research suggests sufficient resources help diminish the stressful nature of demands when demands and resources correspond (9). For example, when an individual takes a test at school or undergoes his/her annual performance review at work, he/she feels stress because they confront opportunities and performance pressures (9). A good performance review may give rise to a promotion, greater responsibilities, and a greater salary (9). On the contrary, a poor review may hinder an individual from securing a promotion (9).  An extraordinarily poor review might even cause  the individual to be sacked (9).To the extent that the individual can apply resources to the demands on him/her, such as placing the exam or review in perspective, being prepared, or obtaining social support; he/she will feel less stress (9). If emotional demands are stressing, having emotional resources in the form of social support is remarkably essential (9). In the case that demands are cognitive, as information overload; then job resources such as information or computer support become more significant (9).

Practical Ways to Overcome Stress:

  1. Determine the source of the stress (3).Rather than feeling like you’re unsuccessful every day, pinpoint what you’re actually stressed about (3). Is it a particular undertaking at work, an approaching exam, an argument with your boss (3)? By being precise and identifying the stressors in your life, you’re one step closer to becoming organized and taking action (3).
  2. Recognize what you can control- and work on that (3).While you can’t control what your in-laws mention, what your boss does, or recession and inflation; you can control what you spend your time on, what you spend your time on, how you perform work, and the   and your response (3). For example, if the scope of a work project is causing you stress, discuss it with your supervisor or divide the project into step-wise tasks and deadlines (3). Stress can be immobilizing. Doing what’s within your capabilities enables you to progress and is empowering and galvanizing(3).
  3. Do what you are passionate about and enjoy (3).It is much simpler to manage stress when the rest of your life is filled with activities you enjoy (3).Even if your job is significantly stressful, you can search for one or more hobbies that improve your life (3). What are you enthusiastic about (3)? If you are unsure, try different activities to find something that is very useful and rewarding (3).
  4. Get moving. Move your body often – don’t sit in excess of an hour (4).Physical activity has a key role in diminishing and precluding the effects of stress, but you don’t have to be an athlete or spend hours exercising to experience the benefits (4).Any type of physical activity can help alleviate stress and eliminate tension, anger and frustration (4). Exercise releases endorphins that improve your mood and make you feel good, and it can also be utilized as a useful distraction to your quotidian anxiety (4).

Although the utmost benefit comes from exercising 30 minutes or more, you can begin with small sessions and increase your fitness level slowly (4).  Short 10-minute periods of activity that raise your heart rate and make you sweat can help to alleviate stress and provide you with more vitality and positive expectations and beliefs. (4). Even very small activities can accumulate throughout the day. (4). The first step is getting up and moving (4). Here are some simple ways (4):

  • Listen to some music and dance.
  • Walk your dog.
  • Walk or cycle to the supermarket
  • Instead of using an elevator at work or home, take the stairs.
  • Park your car as far away as possible, and walk the rest of the way.
  • Select an activity you enjoy, so that there is a higher probability you will continue practicing this activity.


  1. Robbins, S.P., and Judge, T.A. (2011).Organizational Behavior. 14/E. New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. Mills, H., Reiss, N., and Dombeck, M, M. (2008, June 30). Types of Stressors (Eustress Vs.Distress). Retrieved October 17, 2016 from:
  3. Tartakovsky, M. 10 Practical Ways to Handle Stress. Retrieved October 28, 2016 from:
  4. Stress Management: Tips for Getting Your Stress Under Control For Good. Retrieved October 28, 2016 from:
  5. Schuler, R.S. (1980) .Definition and Conceptualization of Stress in Organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance.  For a revised review of definitions, see Cooper, C.L., Dewe, P.J., and O’Driscoll, M.P.  (2002) Organizational Stress: A review and Critique of Theory, Research, and Applications . Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage
  6. See, for example, Cavanaugh,M.A., BoswellW.R.,Roehling,M.V., and Boudreau, J.W (2000). An Empirical Examination of Self-Reported Work Stress Among U.S. Managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, February ,pp.65-74
  7. Posakoff,N.P., LePine, J.A., and LePine,M.A. (2007) Differential Challenge- Hindrance Stressors Relationships with Job Attitudes,Turnover Intentions, Turnover, and Withdrawal Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 92, no.2 , pp.438-454; and LePine,J.A., LePine,M.A., and Jackson,C.L. (2004). Challenge and Hindrance Stress: Relationship with Exhaustion, Motivation to Learn, and Learning Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, October.pp.883-891
  8. Gilboa, S., Shirom, A., Fried, Y. and Cooper, C. (2008).A Meta-analysis of Work Demand Stressors and Job Performance: Examine Main and Moderating Effects. Personnel Psychology 61, no.2 ,pp.227-271
  9. Van Yperen,N.W. and Janssen,O.(2002) Fatigued and Dissatisfied or Fatigued but Satisfied ? Goal Orientations and Responses to High Job Demands. Academy of Management Journal,December,,pp.1161-1171;and Van Yperen,N.W. and Hagedoorn, M. (2003). Do High Job Demands Increase Intrinsic Motivation or Fatigue or Both ? The Role of Job Control and Job Social Support. Academy of Management Journal, June,pp.339-348
  10. Wallace,J.C., Edwards,B.D., Arnold.T., Frazier,M.L., and Finch,D.M. (2009). Work Stressors, Role-Based Performance, and the Moderating Influence of Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology,94,no.1,pp.254-262

                    By: Sara M.F.M. Abu-Youssef, MSc. Equivalency, Business Administration Department, Faculty of Commerce, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, and

              MBA, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt

    Edited By: Mona Timor Shehata




Stevie Awards Winners’ Articles Series – Eng. Abeer Mahmoud Ramadna



“Continuous Learning, adopting innovation & creativity and teamwork are among the guiding principles of success and excellence in the government sector” Eng. Abeer Mahmoud Ramadna

Winner Name: Eng.  Abeer Mahmoud Ramadna

Winner Title: Director Assistance for Control & Inspection for Economic Activities at Ministry of Industry & Trade in Jordan

Winning categories:

  1. The Gold Stevie Winner in the category “the most innovative Communications Professional of the year “
  2. The Silver Stevie Winner in the category “Innovation in Community Relations or public Services Communications”
  3. The Bronze Stevie Winner in the category “Innovative Management in Government – Organizations with 100 or more employees”
Brief Biography about the Winner:

Abeer Ramadna is the Director assistant of control and inspection unit at the Ministry of Industry, Trade, and Supply (MIT) in Jordan, she has a Master Degree in Industrial Engineering- Engineering Administration / University of Jordan with “excellent degree”. Abeer has 20 years of experience in private and public sectors, and is a focal point for UNIDO at MIT in Jordan. Abeer is a certified Management development Expert from ITC/ Vienna in 2005, a certified Export Consultant to EU from CBI/Netherland in 2007, certified Lead Auditor for Quality Management ISO 9001:2015, a certified Engineer Expert in Quality and Environmental Management systems in 2018 and a certified EFQM Assessor from EFQM in 2019. Eng. Abeer has a wide professional expertise in many fields that allow her to provide consultations to the organizations in various fields including Quality Management, Environmental Management, preparing industrial polices, strategies and plans, Inspection polices, Monitoring & Evaluation systems, implementing the ISO9001, ISO14001 ISO14040s standards, and conducting technical industrial sectors studies.

Eng. Abeer won three Stevie Awards from three different categories after participation in Middle East Stevie Awards in 2020, these are:

  1. Gold Stevie Winner in a category:” The Most Innovative Communications Professional of the Year”. These categories honor the most innovation in communications practice, management, and use of technology.
  2. Silver Stevie Winner in a category: “Award for Innovation in Community Relations or Public Service Communications”. These categories honor innovation in communications practice, management, and use of technology in the public sector.
  3. Bronze Stevie Winner in a category: “Award for Innovative Management in Government “. These categories honor innovation in executive management including the Award for Innovative Management in a number of industry sectors.

Abeer has been published scientific papers in one of the world accredited journals in E-government. Titled “Barriers to E-Government Adoption in Jordanian Organizations from Users’ and Employees’ Perspectives” in 2017, the link is:

and published another scientific paper titled: “SEM approach to determine factors affecting e-government success in Jordan”,  the link is: _to_determine_factors_affecting_e-government_success_in_Jordan

She was selected as a Judge at the Best Jordanian chemical product Award in all three cycles of it during 2015 to 2020, Judge in the 2019 management & entrepreneur Awards categories judging committee Stevie Awards, and Judge at the best industrial engineering project for the Jordanian universities in 2019. She participated in several national and International conferences, meetings and presented papers, as a representative of the MIT / Jordan.

Stevie Award winning Case Study:

  • Developing action plans of inspection development to governmental institutions (Inspectorates) work in fields of health, Environment, labor, safety for economic sectors in Jordan.
  • Supervision of developing Electronic Inspection System for governmental inspectorates.
  •  Conduct many awareness workshops for governmental inspectorates and for private sector institutions.
  • Conduct many workshops and training sessions as A National trainer of trainers in the shaping of future studies.
  • Secretariat of higher committee for Inspection development of Economic Activates that consists from high level management in governmental inspectorates.
  • Abeer is trusted as a competent team leader and confident expert in Quality management & Inspection systems
  • Abeer conducted in 2018 a study titled the Industrial engineering in the government sector in Jordan, current situation and future opportunities and present it in the 2nd International Conference on Industrial Systems & Manufacturing Engineering (ISME’19) Nov, 11-12, 2019 in Amman.
  • Abeer was chosen after a series of selection process as one of the National participants in the Civil Service Development Program in Jordan and attended all phases including the leadership and developing high performance teams at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst UK during 2019.

Eng. Abeer Mahmoud Ramadna “Continuing to contribute achievements and make positive impacts are goals that are achievable with the presence of strong & positive attitude, self-motivated character & determination.”

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Stevie Awards Winners’ Articles Series – Asiacell



“Winning such an award requires hard work and we encourage other companies to focus on their customers and local communities in order to excel”

Winning Organization: Asiacell

Nomination: Award for Excellence in Innovation in Technology Industries (including Telecom)

Brief about the Organization:

Asiacell is a leading provider of telecommunications and data services in Iraq. As part of international telecommunications company Ooredoo Group, Asiacell was Iraq’s first mobile telecommunications provider to achieve nationwide coverage. Asiacell is also a leading internet provider with its 3.9G data services, offering the best network coverage in all of Iraq since January 2015.

Stevie Award Winning Case Study:

As part of its commitment to expand network coverage in Iraq, Asiacell has continued to support the redevelopment of the country’s infrastructure and economy and the provision of high-quality connectivity solutions. It has enhanced its “Hot Zone” restoration strategy by putting 200 sites on air and connecting over 500 sites to 3G.

Focused on improving the quality of life for communities, Asiacell’s CSR initiatives are focused on key areas, such as health, education and culture. Asiacell has equipped several higher education institutions with computer labs and supported the renovation of schools, with the aim of providing quality education infrastructure. It also partnered with the Chibayish Environmental Tourism Organization to build the first Iraqi Marshlands heritage museum in Ahwar as part of its efforts to revive Iraq’s Marshland, while generating a positive effect on tourism and jobs creation. 

Recognising that its people are its key asset, Asiacell continues to roll out initiatives focused on engaging and empowering employees. It has invested heavily in digital transformation, including digital upskilling for employees, and streamlining of various internal processes in order to nurture a digital-first culture that embraces innovation.

We are so glad to be recognized as a successful and innovative telecommunication company in Iraq with a Stevie Award for “Excellence in Innovation in Technology Industries”. Recognition from the Stevie Awards means a lot to us and motivates Asiacell to continue to serve the community with professionalism. Winning such an award requires hard work and we encourage other companies to focus on their customers and local communities in order to excel.


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Qisaty Project & Developing Talent in Children with Special Needs in Egypt



Edited By: Mahmoud Mansi

Qisaty Project – founded by Mona Lamloum – was launched on 26th December 2019 to support children talents through a series of storytelling, writing and drawing workshops.

The total number of children who participated in the storytelling workshop is 60 including the most talented 20 who were selected to the story writing sessions, 16 children ranging from 6 to 14 years old got their stories selected to be drawn by 19 children with special needs.

The drawing workshops were held in 3 cities in Egypt with cooperation with 2 special needs associations; Nida Society Rehabilitation with both branches in Cairo and Luxor. 14 children, and Ashab El-Erada Association in Alexandria. 5 children.

The children have different disabilities, hearing loss, partial blindness, movement disability, learning difficulty disability, mental disability and increased electricity in the brain.

Of course such an interesting project needs proper preparation and an intellectual plan. Mona Lamloum shared some of the challenges that she and her team have faced during the project:

1-The global pandemic and the sudden lockdown.

2- The fact that most of the children with special needs suffer from many chronic diseases which lowers their immunity, in addition to the huge responsibility that lies on the team while holding the workshop during the pandemic.

3-The fear of the parents of the children with special needs participation at the drawing workshops due to the pandemic and the lack of their immunity. Which was managed to concur with the help of the project partners in drawing workshops. 

Eventually, Qisaty Project was held at exceptional circumstances and according to deadlines set up before the global Corona pandemic. However, the team did their best to get the project done within the lockdown with a quality that is aspired from the beginning, and that was done simply by teamwork, sharing a unified vision, and collaborating to find new solutions.

The result is 16 short stories in addition to 64 drawings by hands of talented children with special needs and with variable disabilities from three cities: Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor. Each drawing tells a different scene from a short story inspired from the children themselves to be published as a grand book that gathers the short stories and the drawings of all the talented young participants.


Qisaty Sponsors:

– Amideast: Hosted the story telling, story writing workshops and the day that gathered the writers and children with special needs mixed day.

– Nahdet Misr Publishing House.

Media Sponsors:

– Marj3 Platform

– HR Revolution Middle East


– Arablit Quarterly

Children with special needs Associations:

– Nida Society Rehabilitation with both branches in Cairo and Luxor.

– Ashab El-Erada Association in Alexandria.

Qisaty Trainers:

– Hanan El-Taher.

– Mona Lamloum.

– Zeinab Mobark.

Designing Storytelling and writing workshop:

-Mona Lamloum

Writing workshops:

– Mona Lamloum

– Yaqoub El-Sharouni

Drawing workshop:

– Under the supervision of Shoikar Khalifa,

 – With the help of respectful team at Nida Association at Cairo and Luxor.

 – Ashab El-Erada Association at Alexandria by Sahar Zaiton with the help of Aliaa Abd-Elsalam.

Team Members:

– Rawan Said

– Ahmed Ismail

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